print

Correlational findings

Study Kesavayuth et al. (2016): study GB 2005

Public:
50-75 aged adults,UK, followed 6 years, 2005-2011
Survey name:
UK-BHPS combined waves
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 5597
Non Response:
39.7%
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's Label
Openness
Our Classification
Error Estimates
Cronbach alpha=.67
Remarks
T1:2005, T2:2011
Distribution
M=13.01, SD=3.90
Male: M=13.26, SD=3.77
Female: M=12.80, SD=4.01
Related specification variables
Operationalization
Selfreported three questions: I see myself as someone who
a) Is original, comes up with new ideas
b) Values artistic, aesthetic experiences
c) Has an active imagination
7 applies to me perfectly
6
5
4
3
2
1 does not apply to me at all
Total score is from 3 to 21, then, the standardized scores are calculated for each subgroup (males and females)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-e b-fix = +.07 ns T1-T2 CHANGE in happiness by T1 openness
- Male        b-fix = +.23(01)
- Female      b-fix = -.04(ns)

b-fix controlled for
- employment
- other personality traits
  - conscientiousness
  - extraversion
  - neuroticism
  - agreableness
- interaction of retired and personality
- gender
- age
- household income
- marital status
- health problems
- educational attainment
- number of children
- region
- survey year
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-e b-IV-F = +/- - Male        b-IV-F = +.20(05)
- Female      b-IV-F = -.10(ns)

Additionally Instrumental Variable used for retirement: eligibility ages for the basic state pension in UK

Similar results when
- splitting retirees into normal and early retirees
- additionally controlled for age squared, age cubed
- those who participated in both T1 and T2

Male became stronger when excluded those early retirees.

Female became stronger and significant (p<.10) when only consider those who were employed in T1 and retired at T2