Correlational findings

Study Fischer et al. (2015a): study AU 1995

14 year olds, Australia, followed to age 21, 1995-2002
Survey name
N = 7223
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
self-completing questionnaires at age 14 and 21 follow ups


Authors's Label
Age onset alcohol problems (effect on change happiness)
Our Classification
Assessed retrospectively at age 21 (T2), using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, Module alcohol disorders (Andrews & Peters 2003)
Related specification variables
Self report on single question:
How old they were when the first experienced alcohol dependence and/or abuse symptoms?
1:  Never (reference)
2: 18 years or more
3: 16-17 years
4: 15 years or less

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-v-3-b = CHANGE happiness between age 14-21 by age of onset alcohol problems (vs no problems).

Problems with alcohol in adolescence go with a decline of happiness in adolescence, the younger first problem experienced, the greater the loss in happiness
O-SLW-c-sq-v-3-b OR = - ns/05 Satisfied (vs Very satisfied)
- 18 years or more    OR = 1.03 CI95[0.75,1.44]
- 16-17 years         OR = 1.75 CI95[1.08,2.84]
- 15 years or less    OR = 1.37 CI95[0.63,2.91]
O-SLW-c-sq-v-3-b = Dissatisfied (vs Very satisfied) M-FH-c-sq-v-3-b = Happy (vs Very happy) M-FH-c-sq-v-3-b = Unhappy (vs Very happy)

ORs denote positive correlations with UNhappiness. The standarde notation in the WDH is from less to more happiness and hence the direction of correlation is noted above as negative (-)

T2 happiness controled for T1 happiness to capture change

ORs similsr when additionally controled for T2:
- gender
- employment
- on welfare
- in school
- education
- living arrangement
- has boy/girl friend