Correlational findings

Study Shin (2015): study ZZ 2000

Adult general public, 61 nations, 2000-2009
Survey name:
INT-World Database of Happiness Pooled surveys from different programs
N = 90000
Non Response:
Multiple assesment methods


Authors's Label
Having public pension system
Our Classification
The pension data in 2002 of Bloom et al. (2007)
Related specification variables
Existence of a public pension system in the nation in 2002
1 yes
0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-*-sq-nt-11-a r = +.39 ns AVERAGE happiness by having a public pension system in 61 nations (vs not) O-SLW-*-sq-nt-11-a b = -.22 ns b controlled for GDP per capita O-SLW-*-sq-nt-11-a = when the income per capita is low, the contour lines are vertically-tilted. It means that regardless the involvement of the pension system, the level of happiness is almost the same. However, as the income per capita increases, the contour lines are no longer vertically-tilted. The contour lines begin to turn clockwise.

For example, point A where income per capita which is 8.5 without the pension system and point B where income per capita which is 10.0 with the pension system have the same level of happiness, that is, the two points, A and B, are connected with a contour line where the same level of happiness is seven. In other words, if the income levels are the same, the level of happiness is higher when there is no pension system