Correlational findings

Study Shin (2015): study ZZ 2000

Adult general public, 61 nations, 2000-2009
Survey name
INT-World Database of Happiness Pooled surveys from different programs
N = 90000
Non Response
Multiple assesment methods


Authors's Label
Per capita GDP
Our Classification
GDP per capita has used the variable "rgdpch" in Penn World Table 7.1
Related specification variables
Calculated the average of GDP per capita from 2000 to 2009, GDP per capita (chain series) converted using Purchasing Power Parity (PPP), at 2005 constant prices, used the logarithm scale for GDP per capita

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-*-sq-nt-11-a r = +.83 AVERAGE happiness by GDP per capita in 61 nations O-SLW-*-sq-nt-11-a b = +.79 s O-SLW-*-sq-nt-11-a b = +.59 s b controlled for life expenctancy O-SLW-*-sq-nt-11-a b = +.82 s b controlled for having a public pension system or not O-SLW-*-sq-nt-11-a = when the income per capita is low, the happiness is higher in natins with a public pension system comparing to the one without the pension system (the blue line is upper than the red line)

But opposite occurs when the income per capita is high, the happiness is higher without the pension system comparing to the one with the pension system (the red line is upper than the blue line)

The reverse point happens around GDP per capita 1347 = exp(7.206) in 2005 value which is small.
O-SLW-*-sq-nt-11-a = The estimation results in Fig.4(1) is not much different to the results obtained by assuming the linear relationship- Fig.2(1). The red lines (P=0) without the pension system are steeper than the blue lines (P=1) with the pension system.