Correlational findings

Study Ding (2017): study CN 2011

45+ aged, rural hukou, China, 2011
Survey name:
CN-China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS)
N = 10378
Non Response:
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's Label
No pension
Our Classification
The New Rural Pension Program is a semi-public program; participants pay as for private pension but public subsidy is added to payments The New Rural Pension Program started in 2009 and involved more government involvement than the earlier Old Rural Pension Program. Both programs intend to reduce the difference in old age income between urban and rural areas and make rural elderly less dependent on family (who moved to cities) and land
Related specification variables
No use of the  New Rural Pension Program or any other pension system
1: voluntary non-use
0: involuntary: non-use;
   not available in local area, not eligible

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-z OLRC = -.24 p < .01 - All O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-z OLRC = -.25 p < .01 - Age 45-49 O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-z OLRC = -.23 p < .05 - Age 60-74 O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-z OLRC = -.03 ns - Age 75+

OLRC controlled for
- gender
- edu
- marriage
- health
- residence
- income, land, house
- descendant
- having at least one son