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Correlational findings

Study Ding (2017): study CN 2011

Public:
45+ aged, rural hukou, China, 2011
Survey name:
CN-China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS)
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 10378
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's Label
Having a son
Our Classification
Remarks
Having a son used to be an old age income insurance in rural China
Related specification variables
Operationalization
Having at least one son
1. yes
0. no

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-z b = +.02 ns b controlled for
- age
- edu
- marriage
- health
- residence
- income, land, house
- new rural pension program
- other pension
- descendant
- having at least one son
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-z b-iv = +.02 ns Additionally Instrument Variables used for new rural pension program
- availability of new rural pension program
- expects to rely on pension
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-z OLRC = +.06 ns - All O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-z OLRC = +.01 ns - Age 45-49 O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-z OLRC = +.20 ns - Age 60-74 O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-z OLRC = -.11 ns - Age 75+

OLRC controlled for
- gender
- edu
- marriage
- health
- residence
- income, land, house
- new rural pension program
- other pension
- descendant

Similar results when using Instrument Variables for new rural pension program
- availability of new rural pension program
- expects to rely on pension
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-z OLRC = +.05 ns Those without coverage of any pension plan
- All sample
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-z OLRC = -.03 ns - Age 45-49 O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-z OLRC = +.35 p < .05 - Age 60-74 O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-z OLRC = -.66 ns - Age 75+

OLRC controlled for
- gender
- age
- edu
- marriage
- health
- residence
- income, land, house
- descendant
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-z OLRC = +.06 ns - All sample O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-z OLRC = -.02 ns - Age 45-49 O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-z OLRC = +.35 p < .05 - Age 60-74 O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-z OLRC = -.65 ns - Age 75+

Additionally controlled for voluntarily not to participate in the new rural pension program