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Correlational findings

Study Ding (2017): study CN 2011

Public:
45+ aged, rural hukou, China, 2011
Survey name:
CN-China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS)
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 10378
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's Label
Use of New Rural Pension Program
Our Classification
Remarks
Semi-public program; participants pay as for private pension but public subsidy is added to payments The New Rural Pension Program started in 2009 and involved more government involvement than the earlier Old Rural Pension Program. Both programs intend to reduce the difference in old age income between urban and rural areas and make rural elderly less dependent on family (who moved to cities) and land
Related specification variables
Operationalization
Participant in New Rural Pension Programme
1 yes
0 no

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-z b = +.10 p < .01 b controlled for
- age
- edu
- marriage
- health
- residence
- income, land, house
- participates in other pension program
- descendant
- having at least one son
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-z b-iv = +.10 p < .01 Additional Instrument Variable analysis using
- availability of new rural pension program
- expects to rely on pension
denotes a causal effect
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-z OLRC = +.29 p < .01 - All O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-z OLRC = +.23 p < .01 - Age 45-49 O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-z OLRC = +.32 p < .01 - Age 60-74 O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-z OLRC = +.66 p < .01 - Age 75+

OLRC controlled for
- gender
- education
- marriage
- health
- residence
- income, land, house
- other pension
- descendants
- having at least one son

Similar results when using Instrument Variables for new rural pension program
- availability of new rural pension program
- expects to rely on pension