Correlational findings

Study Moller (1985): study ZA 1984

Ex-migrant workers, returned to rural Kwazulu, South Africa, 1984
Survey name
Unnamed study
N = 253
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
open- and closed-ended questions. The fieldwork was carried out by three Zulu male research assistants. The fieldworkers spent up to several weeks in any of the research areas to make a detailed study of living conditions of the rural communities.


Authors's Label
Comparative happiness (relative to grandparents)
Our Classification
1:83%; 0:17%
Related specification variables
Selfreport on single question
"Do you think you are as happy as your grandparents were at your age?"
1:as happy as grandparents
0:not as happy as grandparents

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-g r = +.16 All retirees O-HL-c-sq-v-5-a r = +.14 All retirees O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-g Beta = +.16 p < .01 All retirees

Beta controlled for:
-satisfied with health
-voluntary retirement
-more active person
-no pension income
-has a confidant
-community elder
-satisfied with job while working
-enjoys aspects of retirement
-retired suddenly
-agrees:planning is key to success in life
-preference for entrepreneurship in retirement
-higher modernity score
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-g Beta = +.17 p < .05 Retirees aged 64 and younger only(N=125)

Beta controlled for:
-satisfied with health
-perceived financial adequacy
-no pension income
-has a confidant
-community elder
-looked forward to retirement
-aged gradually