Correlational findings

Study Moller (1985): study ZA 1984

Ex-migrant workers, returned to rural Kwazulu, South Africa, 1984
Survey name
Unnamed study
N = 253
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
open- and closed-ended questions. The fieldwork was carried out by three Zulu male research assistants. The fieldworkers spent up to several weeks in any of the research areas to make a detailed study of living conditions of the rural communities.


Authors's Label
Activity index
Our Classification
Related specification variables
Selfreport on single question:
"Which of the following activities do you do often, sometimes,very seldom or never?"
a: Physical
     -Walk to places
     -Work on your land
     -Do odd jobs
     -Go to the shops/market
     -Go to town
b: Solitary
     -Just sit and think about things
     -Do handcrafts
c: Social
     -Visit with friends
     -Drink with friends
     -Play games
     -Go to parties, feasts,weddings, funerals, etc.
d: Cultural, socio-political
     -Engage in religious activities/ church meetings
     -Attend community meetings

Index caculated according to frequency of activities and divided into three groups:
3: more active

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-g r = -.30 All retirees O-HL-c-sq-v-5-a r = -.35 All retirees O-HL-c-sq-v-5-a Beta = -.12 p < .01 All retirees

Beta controlled for:
-satisfaction with health
-higher affluence rating
-need to purchase maize
-grows cash crop
-religious traditionalist
-has a confidant
-keeps goats
-higher monthly income
-worked for many years in jobs
-retired for many years
-no desire to return to work
-agrees: modern community leader
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-a Beta = -.29 p < .0001 Retirees aged 65 and older only (N=128)

Beta controlled for:
-seldom restricted by poor health
-higher affluence rating
-need to purchase maize
-grows cash crop
-religious traditionalist
-keeps chickens
-has a confidant
-higher standard house
-keeps goats
-larger size field
-higher monthly income
-no desire to return to work
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-g Beta = -.06 ns All retirees

Beta controlled for:
-satisfied with health
-voluntary retirement
-no pension income
-has a confidant
-higher standard house
-community elder
-satisfied with job while working
-enjoys aspects of retirement
-retired suddenly
-is happy as grandparents were
-agrees:planning is key to success in life
-preference for entrepreneurship in retirement
-higher modernity score