Correlational findings

Study Moller (1985): study ZA 1984

Ex-migrant workers, returned to rural Kwazulu, South Africa, 1984
Survey name
Unnamed study
N = 253
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
open- and closed-ended questions. The fieldwork was carried out by three Zulu male research assistants. The fieldworkers spent up to several weeks in any of the research areas to make a detailed study of living conditions of the rural communities.


Authors's Label
Involuntary retirement
Our Classification
A:49%; B:22%; C:22%; D:17%; E:15%; F:10%; G:8%; H:5%; I:5%
Related specification variables
Selfreport on single question:
"Can you tell me the main reason why you retired from your last job in town? What was your main reason? was there another reason?
A.Too ill, too frail to work
B.Lost job and couldn't find another suitable one
C.Had reached retirement age
D.Tired of working and wanted to rest and enjoy leisure
E.Wanted to continue working in old age but was asked to leave job
F.Needed at home
G.Wanted to start my own business/work for myself
H.Unhappy with the money earned
I.Unhappy with superiors at work

0: Voluntary: C and D
1:Involuntary: A,B,E,F,G,H,I

order change by WDH team.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-g r = +.37 All retirees O-HL-c-sq-v-5-a r = +.34 All retirees O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-g Beta = +.14 p < .05 All retirees

Beta controlled for:
-satisfied with health
-more active person
-no pension income
-has a confidant
-higher standard house
-community elder
-satisfied with job while working
-enjoys aspects of retirement
-retired suddenly
-is happy as grandparents were
-agrees:planning is key to success in life
-preference for entrepreneurship in retirement
-higher modernity score
O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-g Beta = +.16 p < .05 Retirees aged 65 and older only(N=128)

Beta controlled for:
-satisfied with health
-grows cash crop
-need to purchase maize
-owns cattle
-keeps chickens
-satisfied with job while working
-feels relatively young
-retired suddenly
-agrees: planning is key to success in life