Correlational findings

Study Moller (1985): study ZA 1984

Ex-migrant workers, returned to rural Kwazulu, South Africa, 1984
Survey name
Unnamed study
N = 253
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
open- and closed-ended questions. The fieldwork was carried out by three Zulu male research assistants. The fieldworkers spent up to several weeks in any of the research areas to make a detailed study of living conditions of the rural communities.


Authors's Label
Total years worked in wage employment
Our Classification
Direction of correlation unclear in original report. Sign in table is negative, but tekst indicates positive relationship. Present version approved by author.
median:33 years
Related specification variables
Selfreport on single question on total years worked in job in town (as a migrant worker)
2: many years

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-v-5-g r = +.14 All retirees O-HL-c-sq-v-5-a r = +.15 All retirees O-HL-c-sq-v-5-a Beta = +.07 ns All retirees

Beta controlled for:
-satisfaction with health
-higher affluence rating
-need to purchase maize
-grows cash crop
-religious traditionalist
-has a confidant
-keeps goats
-higher monthly income
-more active person
-retired for many years
-no desire to return to work
-agrees: modern community leader
O-HL-c-sq-v-5-a Beta = +.13 p < .05 Retirees aged 64 and younger only (N=125)

Beta controlled for:
-satisfied with health
-higher monthly income
-religious traditionalist
-grows cash crop
-feel land is secure
-retired for many years
-no desire to return to work
-achieved/confident of becoming wealthy

There is no significant for 65+.