# Correlational findings

## Study Chen et al. (2005): study JP 1999

Public
9-10 aged children followed 3 years, Japan 1999-2002
Survey name
JP-Toyama Birth Cohort Study
Sample
Respondents
N = 7794
Non Response
14,4%
Assessment
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)

## Correlate

Authors's Label
Breakfast eating
Our Classification
Error Estimates
T1-T2 correspondence r=+,25
Remarks
Assessed at T1 and T2 with 3 year difference
Distribution
N= 4:7256(93,1)%;  3: 398 (5,1)%; 2:101(1,3)% ;1:39 (0,5)%
Operationalization
Self report on question on frequency of having breakfast
4: almost every day
3: often
2:sometimes
1:almost never

## Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-QOL-cm-sq-v-5-a = +/- ns T1 Every day breakfast by T2 happiness

vs often           OR = 1,21 CI95[0,99-1,49]
vs sometimes       OR = 1,18 CI95[0,78-1,76]
vs almost never    OR = 0.93 CI95[0,49-1,76]
OR no controls
O-QOL-cm-sq-v-5-a = +/- ns vs often           OR = 1,21 CI95[0,97-1,51]
vs sometimes       OR = 1,10 CI95[0,70-1,72]
vs almost never    OR = 0.73 CI95[0,35-1,49]
OR controlled for
- age
- sexe
- T1 BMI
O-QOL-cm-sq-v-5-a = +/- ns vs often           OR = 1,09 CI95[0,86-1,38]
vs sometimes       OR = 1,17 CI95[0,71-1,95]
vs almost never    OR = 0,83 CI95[0,39-1,75]
- Preference for physical activity
- Frequency of physical activity
- Television viewing
- Bedtime
- Sleep duration
- age
- sexe
- T1 BMI
O-QOL-cm-sq-v-5-a = -                  T2 happiness
T1 breakfast     % happy  % unhappy difference
- every day      41,9     58,1      -16,2
- often          37,3     62,8      -25,5
- sometimes      38,0     62,0      -24
- almost never   43,6     56,4      -11,8
O-QOL-cm-sq-v-5-a = - T1-T2 CHANGE        T2 happiness
in breakfast eating %happy  %unhappy difference
- remained often    42,0     58,0    -16,0
- often to seldom   31.0     63,8    -32,0
- seldom to often   45,4     54,6    - 9,2
- remained seldom   26,2     73,8    -47,6
O-QOL-cm-sq-v-5-a = + p < .05 T1-T2 CHANGE breakfast eating by T2 happiness

Remained eating breakfast often
vs often to seldom   OR = 1,61 CI95[1,25-2.08]
vs seldom to often   OR = 0,87 CI95[0,58-1,31]
vs remaind selsom    OR = 2,04 CI95[1,03-4,07]
OR not controled
O-QOL-cm-sq-v-5-a = + p < .05 Remained eating breakfast often
vs often to seldom   OR = 1,61 CI95[1,24-2.07]
vs seldom to often   OR = 0,87 CI95[0,58-1,30]
vs remaind selsom    OR = 2,05 CI95[1,03-4,09]
OR controled for
- age
- sexe
- T1 BMI
O-QOL-cm-sq-v-5-a = + p < .05 Remained eating breakfast often
vs often to seldom   OR = 1,44 CI95[1,07-1,93]
vs seldom to often   OR = 0,57 CI95[0,33-0,93]
vs remaind seldom    OR = 1,52 CI95[0,68-3,40]