Correlational findings

Study Nettle (2005a): study GB 2000

Working population, United Kingdom, 2000
Survey name:
Unnamed study
N = 11419
Non Response:
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's Label
Socio-economic status
Our Classification
Five-fold classification (I Professional, II
Managerial and Technical, III Skilled, IV Semi-skilled, V Unskilled and routine)
Coded as a number between 1 and 5 with Class 1=5 and Class V=I, in order for increasing values on the scale to reflect
increasing SES.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-V-h-sq-n-10-a r = + p < .001 r = 0,07

The covariation of SES and SWB is mediated by Income and Personal Contral (the direct
pathway not passing through these variables is of negligible strength, B < 0.01).
Increasing SES strongly increases Income (B = 0.29). However, the effect of Income on SWB is negligible (B < 0.01). There is a moderate effect of SES on the Personal
Contral (B = 0.15), and from thence a very strong effect of Personal Control on Life
Satisfaction (B = 0.44). The indirect pathway via both Income and Personal Contral is
relatively weak. Thus, the main effect of SES on SWB appears to be via increasing
Personal Control, and essentially unmediated by Income.