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Correlational findings

Study Watkins et al. (2014): study US 2011

Public:
Psychology students, USA, 2011
Survey name:
Unnamed study
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 129
Non Response:
Assessment:
Questionnaire: web

Correlate

Authors's Label
Gratitude 3-blessings intervention
Our Classification
Remarks
Participants in all three groups filled out a pre-treatment measures packet. After randomization, they received an email regarding their specific treatment each afternoon for the next 7 days. Participants replied to the email after following instructions, and they were to complete each exercise by 10 AM the following morning. After the treatment phase subjects completed the outcome measures packet, and we administered these measures again one week and five weeks after the end of treatment.
Distribution
1:    n = 47
0A: n = 42
0B: n = 40
Operationalization
Participants were randomly assigned to:
1:   GRATITUDE 3-BLESSINGS.
Subjects first listed three good things that had happened to them in the previous 48 h. For each event, they were then instructed  to ‘write about how this particular experience or event made you feel grateful.’
0A: CONTROL: PRIDE 3-BLESSINGS.
subjects first listed ‘three things that went well’ during the previous 48 h. After recalling these events, subjects were asked to ‘write about how this particular experience or event made you  feel that you are better than most or better than average
0B: CONTROL:MEMORY PLACEBO.
Subjects were told ‘Recent research suggests that a person’s mood state
may be improved by things as simple as the frequent practice of focused memory retrieval exercises.’ For each evening during the  treatment phase, subjects were to describe a different personal semantic memory.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks M-AO-*-mq-v-5-a F = 3.56 p < .05 F value from a 3 (between subjects: treatment group) × 3 (within subjects: time of assessment) analysis of covariance using GLM  Post hoc pairwise comparisons using LSD showed that those in the gratitude 3-blessings treatment had significantly higher outcome scores across the three post-treatment assessments than did those in the pride 3-blessings (p = 0.02) and the memory placebo (p = 0.04) treatments.

Values in the picture are z-scores based on changes from the grand mean across all groups and time points. All pre-treatment means are represented as the pre-treatment grand mean.