Correlational findings

Study Li et al. (2001): study US 1996

Low active elderly participants in an exercise training and controls, USA, 199?
Survey name
Unnamed study
N = 95
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
All participants completed measures during an initial group orientation meeting (T1). Participants from the experimental group com pleted these measures a second (Month 3: T2) and third (Month 6: T3) time either at the end of a practice class or at home, whereas participants in the control group completed their second and third assessments by mail.


Authors's Label
24 week TaiChi program
Our Classification
Related specification variables
Participants in the experimental group attended a 60-min Tai Chi practice session
twice a week for 24 consecutive weeks.
The style of Tai Chi implemented was a
condensed, classical Yang form, which incorporates elements of strength, balance, postural alignment, and concentration.
The sessions consisted of a 15-min warm-up, 30 min of Tai Chi practice, followed by a 15-min cool-down period. During the practice, participants were led by an instructor and
imitated, at a similar speed, the motions and postures of the instructor. Participants
were also encouraged to practice at home.

were also encouraged to practice at home.
Participants in the control group received no active interaction during the 24
weeks of the study. They were instructed to maintain their normal routine activities
without starting new exercise programs and were told that they would receive a 4-week Tai Chi program at the end of the study.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-BW-cw-mq-v-5-d DM = + p < .05               M happiness at      Difference
              T1     T2    T3     T2-T1 T3-T1
Treated       1,86   2,08  2,38   +0,22 +0,52
Controls      1,63   1,57  1,79   -0,06 +0,16
- difference                      +0,16 +0,36
A-BW-cw-mq-v-5-d D%sr = + p < .05                                   Difference
                                  T2-T1  T3-T1
Treated                           +2,8%  +6,5%
Controls                          -0,8%  +2,0%
- difference                      +2,0%  +4,5%

T1: before start
T2: month 3,  = mid-intervention
T3: month 6,  = end of intervention

Multi-variate treatment effects significant for both positive and negative affect