Correlational findings

Study Niedzwiedz et al. (2015): study ZZ EU 12 2006

50-75 aged, general public, 12 European nations, 2006-2007
Survey name:
N = 16071
Non Response:
Interview: computer assisted (CAPI)
face-to-face computer assisted personal interview


Authors's label
Socio-economic Index
Our Classification
Life course Social Economic Index (SEI): a composite index from 4 childhood and 4 adulthood variables. Childhood variables: number of books owned, number of rooms per capita, fathers occupational skill-level, number of amenities in the household including a fixed bath, hot and cold running water, inside toilet, central heating. Adulthood measures include highest education, skill level, current household income and wealth. Index is sum of 8 variables. Scores from 0 for least advantaged and and 1 for most advantaged.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-c b = +2,6 p < .001 INDIVIDUAL happiness by score on Social Economic Index SEI

Women; POSTCOMMUNIST nations
(Men: b = +1,67 p<001)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-c b = +1,6 p < .001 Women; SOUTHERN nations
(Men: b = +.60, p<01)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-c b = +.60 p < .001 Women; BISMACKIAN nations
(Men: b = +.61 p<001)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-c b = +.25 ns Women; SCANDINAVIAN nations
(Men: b = +.34; not significant)

b' s controlled for:
-cohabituation status
-employment status
-ability to make ends meet