Correlational findings

Study Niedzwiedz et al. (2015): study ZZ EU 12 2006

50-75 aged, general public, 12 European nations, 2006-2007
Survey name:
N = 16071
Non Response:
Interview: computer assisted (CAPI)
face-to-face computer assisted personal interview


Authors's label
Welfare regimes
Our Classification
Four types of welfare regime:

a. Postcommunist regime. Still undergoing extensive social reforms, characterised by  limited health service provisions. (Czech Republic and Poland.

b. Southern regime: rudimentary welfare regime because of fragmented system of welfare provision and welfare services. (Greece and Italy)

c. Bismarckian regime: conservative, corporatist. Status differentiating welfare regime in which benefits are often earnings related , administered through the employer and geared towards maintaining existing social patterns. (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland.)

d. Scandinavian regime.  Social democratic, universal, egalitarian and comparatively generous. (Denmark and Sweden)

Level of welfare efforts is low in a and b, higher in c, and highest in d.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-c DM = AVERAGE happiness in nations with different welfare regimes.Specification for gender.

                    Women      Men        All
ALL                 7,56       7,77       7,66
POSTCOMMUNIST:      6,77       7,10       6,93
SOUTHERN:           7,15       7,47       7,31
BISMARCKIAN:        7,78       7,92       7,85
SCANDINAVIAN:       8,57       8,54       8,55

Significance not reported.