Correlational findings

Study Sheldon & Lyubomirsky (2009): study US 2004

Participants in a happiness training, USA 200?
Survey name
Unnamed study
N = 113
Non Response
Multiple assesment methods


Authors's Label
Change activity or circumstance
Our Classification
At T1 participants did not differ in expected effects of the change to be made in the next 2 weeks, but activity change participants reported more self-concordant motivation and expected to invest more effort
N = A; 60, B: 53 1: 75. 0:38
Related specification variables
At T1 participants were randomly assigned to one of the following change assignments, which they think will have a positive effect on their life:
A Change in goals/activities: e.g.
   -  join a club
  - decide on a career direction
B Change in circimstances, e.g.
    - buy yourself something
   - drop a course

At T2 (2 weeks later) particicipants reported whether they had
1 made the change
0 not made the change

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-BW-?-mq-v-5-b DM = +                  Happiness lEVEL      CHANGE
                 T1     T2     T3     T3-T1
Activity change
- made           1,42   1,62   1,68   +0,26
- not made       1.58   0.76   1,26   -0,32
difference                            +0,58(02)
difference % scale range              +7,2%

Circumstance change
- made           1,42   1,48   1,26   -0,16
- not made       1,42   1,26   1,21   -0,21
difference                            +0.05(ns)
difference % scale range              +0,6%
A-BW-?-mq-v-5-b MAoV = ns No main effect A-BW-?-mq-v-5-b Beta = + T3-T1 change among Ss who made an activity change sgnificant only among tose who reported that the activity had added to the variety in their life and were had high awareness.

Happiness assessed at:
T1: baseline, instruction
T2: 2 weeks later, when asked whether they had made the change
T3: 4 weeks later