Correlational findings

Study Austrom (1984): study CA Ontario 1982

23-59 aged English speaking, Toronto and Ontario, Canada, 198?
N = 1038
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)


Authors's Label
Social support: financial
Our Classification
Factor analysis based on the following single closed questions on problems over the past year:
1. having problems managing money
2. deciding how to spend money
3. not having enough money to do the things you want
4. not having a satisfying job
5. not having enough money to get by on.
Rated on a 6-point scale: never / a few times a year / about once a month / a few times a month / once or twice a week / several times a week.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-a r = -.31 ALL Ss (married, including not formally married cohabitating Ss, and non-married):

ß   = -.03 after control for: gender, age, marital status, being in love, desire to change dating pattern or marital status, locus of control, social support (1. expressive: no close companions, no one to depend on, unsatisfactory sex life, problems communicating, dissatisfied with marital status, not enough close friends, no one to show love/affection, too dependent on others, not having children, no one to understand problems;
2. interpersonal demands: too many responsibilities, no one to depend on, too many demands om time,problems communicating, problems with children, problems with spouse/ex-spouse, conflicts with those who are close), and satisfaction with: job and financial situation, friendships, love relationships and living situation;


- females: r = -.37  ß = -.11
Beta's controlled for the same variables as above, except marital status and gender.