Correlational findings

Study Lundberg & Kristenson (2008): study SE 2006

45-69 aged, South-East, Sweden, 2006
Survey name:
Unnamed study
N = 795
Non Response:
Questionnaire: paper
not explicitely reported


Authors's Label
Our Classification
Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D)
Selfreport on 20 questions: Below is a list of the ways you might have felt or behaved. Please tell me how often you have felt this way during the past week:
a: I was bothered by things that usually
don’t bother me
b: I did not feel like eating; my appetite
was poor
c: I felt that I could not shake off the
blues even with help from my family or
d: I felt I was just as good as other
e: I had trouble keeping my mind on
what I was doing
f: I felt depressed
g: I felt that everything I did was an
h: I felt hopeful about the future
i: I thought my life had been a failure
j: I felt fearful
k: My sleep was restless
l: I was happy
m: I talked less than usual
n: I felt lonely
o: People were unfriendly
p: I enjoyed life
q: I had crying spells
r: I felt sad
s: I felt that people dislike me
t: I could not get 'going'
Each rated:
0 = rarely or none of the time
1 = some or little of the time
2 = occasionally or moderate amount of time
3 = most or all of the time
(the scoring of positive items is reversed)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks C-BW-c-sq-l-11-a rpc = -.54 p < .001 rpc controlled for:
- age
- sex