Correlational findings

Study Austrom (1984): study CA Ontario 1982

23-59 aged English speaking, Toronto and Ontario, Canada, 198?
N = 1038
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)


Authors's Label
Social support: interpersonal demands
Our Classification
Factor analysis based on the following closed questions on problems over the past year:
1. having too many responsibilities
2. not having people you can depend on
3. too many demands on your time
4. having problems communicating with others
5. problems with children
6. problems with spouse/ex-spouse
7. conflicts with people who are close.
Rated on a 6-point scale: never / a few times a year / about once a month / a few times a month / once or twice a week / several times a week.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-a r = -.34 ALL Ss (maried (including not formally married cohabitating Ss (considered as married)) and non-married):

ß   = -.01 after control for gender, age, household income, marital status, being in love, desire to change dating patterns or marital status, social support (1. instrumental: problems managing money, problems deciding how to spend money, not enough money to do things, unsatisfying job, not enough money to get by on; 2. expressive: no close companions, unsatisfactory sex life, dissatisfied with marital status, not enough close friends, having no one to show love/affection, feeling too dependent on others, not having children, having no one to understand problems) and satisfaction with: job and financial situation, friendships, love relationships and living situation.


- males:   r = -.23  ß = -.13
- females: r = -.34  ß = +.05
Beta's controlled for the same variables as above, except gender and marital status.