Correlational findings

Study Austrom (1984): study CA Ontario 1982

23-59 aged English speaking, Toronto and Ontario, Canada, 198?
N = 1038
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)


Authors's Label
Social support: expressive
Our Classification
Factor analysis based on the following single closed questions on problems over the past year:
1.  not having a close companion
2.  not having people you can depend on
3.  not having a satisfactorry sex life
4.  communicating with others
5.  dissatisfied with marital status (single, married)
6.  not having enough close friends
7.  not having someone who shows love and affection8.  feeling too dependent on others
9.  not having children
10. not having someone who understands problems.
Rated on a 6-point scale: never / a few times a year / about once a month / a few times a month / once or twice a week / several times a week.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-a r = -.50 ALL Ss (married (including not formally married cohabitating Ss (considered as married)) and non-married):

ß   = -.16 after control for: gender, age, household income, marital status, being in love, desire to change dating pattern or marital status, social support (1. instrumental: problems managing money, deciding how to spend money, not enough money to do things, unsatisfying job, not enough money to get by on; 2. interpersonal demands: too many responsibilities, no one to depend on, too many demands on time, problems communicating, problems with children, problems with spouse/ex-spouse, conflicts wioth those who are close), and satisfaction with: job and financial situation, friendships, love relationships and living situation.


- males:   r = -.49  ß = -.03
- females: r = -.58  ß = -.39
Beta's controlled for the same variables as above, except gender and marital status.