Correlational findings

Study Austrom (1984): study CA Ontario 1982

23-59 aged English speaking, Toronto and Ontario, Canada, 198?
N = 1038
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)


Authors's Label
Locus of control
Our Classification
Related specification variables
Single closed question rated on a 5-point scale: How much control do you feel you have over the important events in your life: almost total control / mostly under my control / about half the time I can control the important events / mostly not under my control / almost no control.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-a r = -.29 ALL Ss (married (including not formally married cohabitating Ss (considered as married)) and non-married). O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-a Chi² = + p < .000 O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-a Beta = -.13 Beta controlled for:
gender, age, household income, marital status, being in love, desire to change dating pattern or marital status, social support (1. instrumental: problems managing money, deciding how to spend money, not enough money to do things, unsatisfying job, not enough money to get by on; 2. expressive: no close companions, no one to depend on, unsatisfying sex life, problems communicating, dissatisfied with marital status, not enough close friends, no one to show love/affection, too dependent on others, not having children, no one to understand problems; 3. interpersonal demands:
too many responsibilities, no one to depend on, too many demands on time, problems communicating, problems with children, problems with spouse/ex-spouse, conflicts with those who are close), and satisfaction with: job and financial situation, friendships, love relationships and living situation.


- males:   r = +.19  ß = +.09
- females: r = -.04  ß = -.07
Beta's controlled for the same variables as above, except marital status and gender.