Correlational findings

Study Austrom (1984): study CA Ontario 1982

23-59 aged English speaking, Toronto and Ontario, Canada, 198?
N =
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)


Authors's Label
Satisfaction with friendships
Our Classification
Single closed question: All things considered, how satisfied or dissatisfied are you with your friendships (the number of friends you have, the type of people they are, the things you do together). Rated on a 11-point scale ranging from completely dissatisfied to completely satisfied.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-a r = +.47 ALL Ss (married (including not formally married cohabitating Ss (considered as married) and non-married):

ß   = +.18  after control for: gender, age, household income, marital status, being in love, desire to change dating pattern or marital status, locus of control, social support (1. instrumental: problems managing money, problems deciding how to spend money, not enough money to do things, unsatisfying job, not enough money to get by on; 2. expressive: having no close companions, having no one to depend on, unsatisfactory sex life, problems communicating, dissatisfied with marital status, having not enough close friends, having no one to show love/affection, too dependent on others, not having children, having no one to understand problems; 3. interpersonal demands: having too many responsibilities, having no one to depent on, too many demands on time, problems communicating, problems with children, problems with spouse/ex-spouse, conflicts with those who are close), and satisfaction with: job and financial situation and love relationships.


- males:   r = +.48  ß = +.27
- females: r = +.42  ß = +.10
Beta's controlled for the same variables as above, except marital status and gender.