Correlational findings

Study Goldwurm et al. (2006): study IT 2004

Students participating in a happiness training, Italy, 200?
Survey name
Unnamed study
N = 80
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)


Authors's Label
Subjective well-being training
Our Classification
1. n = 41, 0. n = 39
Related specification variables
1 INTERVENTION. The program was built on the 14 fundamental characteristics of happy people:
(a) be more active and keep busy
(b) spend more time socializing
(c) be productive at meaningful work
(d) get better organized and plan things out
(e) stop worrying
(f) lower your expectations and aspirations
(g) develop positive optimistic thinking
(h) get present-oriented
(i) work on healthy personality
(j) develop an outgoing, social personality
(k) be yourself (l) eliminate the negative feelings and problems
l) close relationships are no. 1 source of happiness
m) value happiness - the "secret fundamental".

Each fundamental was explored in depth through giving information, group discussion, exploration of personal experiences and homework. The teaching involves replacing negative thought patterns with positive ones.  There were 8 meetings, distributed over a six-month period including a 2-month summer break.

0. CONTROLS. Participants took part in 3 meetings over the same six-months time period (beginning, mid-term, end). During the meetings the assessments were made and only general information about happiness was provided.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-TH-cw-mq-th%-101-a DM = +              Happiness LEVEL       CHANGE
             T1      T2     T3     T2-T1  T3-T1
Intervention 51.95   55.49  60.66  +3.56  +8.52
Controls     52.69   52.82         +0.13
A-TH-cw-mq-th%-101-a D%sr = + Intervention                       +3,6% +8,5%
Controls                           +0.1%
-DIFFERENCE                        +3,5%

-no significant difference between groups.
-p<0.01 for change score at follow-up in intervention group.

Happiness assessed at:
T1 (pre-test)
T2 (post-test)
T3 = 1 year follow-up (intervention only)