Study Goldwurm et al. (2006): study IT 2004
- Students participating in a happiness training, Italy, 200?
- Survey name
- Unnamed study
- N = 80
- Non Response
- Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
- Authors's Label
- Subjective well-being training
- Our Classification
- 1. n = 41, 0. n = 39
- Related specification variables
- 1 INTERVENTION. The program was built on the 14 fundamental characteristics of happy people:
(a) be more active and keep busy
(b) spend more time socializing
(c) be productive at meaningful work
(d) get better organized and plan things out
(e) stop worrying
(f) lower your expectations and aspirations
(g) develop positive optimistic thinking
(h) get present-oriented
(i) work on healthy personality
(j) develop an outgoing, social personality
(k) be yourself (l) eliminate the negative feelings and problems
l) close relationships are no. 1 source of happiness
m) value happiness - the "secret fundamental".
Each fundamental was explored in depth through giving information, group discussion, exploration of personal experiences and homework. The teaching involves replacing negative thought patterns with positive ones. There were 8 meetings, distributed over a six-month period including a 2-month summer break.
0. CONTROLS. Participants took part in 3 meetings over the same six-months time period (beginning, mid-term, end). During the meetings the assessments were made and only general information about happiness was provided.
Observed Relation with Happiness
T1 T2 T3 T2-T1 T3-T1
Intervention 51.95 55.49 60.66 +3.56 +8.52
Controls 52.69 52.82 +0.13
-no significant difference between groups.
-p<0.01 for change score at follow-up in intervention group.
Happiness assessed at:
T3 = 1 year follow-up (intervention only)