Correlational findings

Study Brown et al. (2009a): study US 2006

Participants in a mindfulness meditation course, USA, 200?
Survey name
Unnamed study
N = 69
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
completed in a 1-hour single session


Authors's Label
Mindfulness (FMI)
Our Classification
M = 2.79; SD 0.47
Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory. A 14-item trait measure designed for individuals with mindfulness training.
1. I am open to the experience of the present moment
2. I sense my body, whether eating, cooking, cleaning or talking.
3. When I notice an absence of mind, I gently return to the experience of the here and now.
4. I am able to appreciate myself.
5. I pay attention to what’s behind my actions.
6. I see my mistakes and difficulties without judging them.
7. I feel connected to my experience in the here-and-now.
8. I accept unpleasant experiences.
9. I am friendly to myself when things go wrong.
10. I watch my feelings without getting lost in them.
11. In difficult situations, I can pause without immediately reacting.
12. I experience moments of inner peace and ease, even when things get hectic and stressful.
13. I am impatient with myself and with others.
14. I am able to smile when I notice how I sometimes make life difficult
Rated 1 = rarely, 2 = occasionally, 3 = fairly often, 4 = almost always.
Scoring: reverse item 13 and then average all scores.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks M-AO-*-mq-v*-7-e r = +.57 p < .0001