Correlational findings

Study Austrom (1984): study CA Ontario 1982

23-59 aged English speaking, Toronto and Ontario, Canada, 198?
N = 1038
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)


Authors's Label
Household income
Our Classification
Related specification variables
Single closed questions:
What is your personal annual income (rated on a 10-point scale ranging from $5,000- to $100,000+);
If you are married or living with a romantic partner, what is the combined income of both you and your partner (idem);
- Question on household income rated on   a 10-point scale from $5,000,- to    $100,000+;
For the purpose of regression analysis, the midpoint of each range was used ($35,000 in the range $30,000 to $39,999)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-a r = +.20 p < .001 - personal income:   r = +.10  (001)
- dual income:       r = +.10  (05)

ALL Ss (married, including not formally married cohabitating Ss, and non-married):

ß   = -.03 after control for: gender, age, marital status, being in love, desire to change dating pattern or marital status, locus of control, social support (1. instrumental: problems managing money, not enough money to do things, unsatisfying job, not enough money to get by on; 2. expressive: no close companions, no one to depend on, unsatisfactory sex life, problems communicating, dissatisfied with marital status, not enough close friends, no one to show love/affection, too dependent on others, not having children, no one to understand problems;
3. interpersonal demands: too may responsibilities, no one to depend on, too many demands om time,problems communicating, problems with children, problems with spouse/ex-spouse, conflicts with those who are close), and satisfaction with: job and financial situation, friendships, love relationships and living situation;


- males:   r = -.04  ß = -.02
- females: r = +.10  ß = -.07
Beta's controlled for the same variables as above, except marital status and gender.