Correlational findings

Study Emmons & McCullough (2003): study US 1998

Students, participating in a gratitude excercise, USA, 1998
Survey name
Unnamed study
N = 166
Non Response


Authors's Label
Counting blessings, hassles, and social comparison.
Our Classification
Gratitude condition: "There are many things in our lives, both large and small, that we we may grateful about.Think over the past week and write downon the lines below uo to five things in your life that you are gratfeul for. Hassles condition: "Hasseles are irritants - things that annoy and bother yoy. They occur in various domains of life, including relationships, work, school, housing finances, health and so forth. Think back over today and, on the lines below, list up ti five hassles that occurred in your life Social comparison: " It is human nature to compare ourselves to others. We may be better off than others in some ways, and less fortunate than other people in other ways. Think about ways in which you are better off than others, things that you have that they don' t, and write these down in the spaces below" .
Students were randomly assigned to 10 weekly excercises on either.
A: Gratitude condition with gratitude exercises;
B: Hassles condition, listing up and thinking about five hasles
C: Social comparison, assessment of relative positive aspects of own life.

(No control-group)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-AB-md-mqr-v-5-a a = + Average happiness during the 13 days intervention. Happiness before intervention not reported. No control-group.
              Factor scores of
              Positive   Negative  Affect
              affect     affect    balance
A Gratitude   +0,24      +0,00     +  
B Hassels     -0.26      +0,00     -
C Comparison  +0.00      -0.06     -
A-AB-md-mqr-v-5-a AoC = Positive affect: A>B>C (p<05)
Negative affect: Difference A,B,C not significant.
Affect Balance not computed,significance unknown.