Correlational findings

Study Bakker et al. (2020): study NL 2011

Returning users of a happiness self-help website, Netherlands, 2011-2015
Survey name:
N = 5411
Non Response:
Questionnaire: web
Happiness self-help tool box


Authors's label
Use of Happiness-Diary
Our Classification
Number of times the Happiness-Diary was used

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-AOL-cm-sq-f-11-a b-fix = +.01 p < .001 CHANGE happiness by number of times the Happiness-Diary was used

b (+.013) controled for:
- earlier happiness (to capture change)
- happiness today
- times Happiness-Comparer used
- days before last use of the Happiness-Diary

Using the Happiness Diary ten times increased monthly happiness by approximately 0.14 points on a 0 to 10 scale when all other factors were
held constant. However, less than 4% of the respondents completed the diary 10 times or

The effect of repeated use declined slightly over time

b stronger among the initially least happy participants

b similar across age, sexe, education and income

GMM analysis suggest a causal effect of use of the Happiness-Diary on Happiness
A-AOL-cm-sq-f-11-a D%sr = + Change on scale range estimated 2 to 5%