Correlational findings

Study Hopfensitz & Mantilla (2018): study ZZ 1970

Soccer teams playing in World Cup 1970-2014
Survey name
Not a survey study
N = 304
Non Response
Multiple assesment methods
Happiness in facial expression of players measured using Facereader 6 with artificial neural networks technology. Team performance measured using socces statistics The dependent variables in this study were the number of goals scored and the number of goals conceded., goal difference and World Cup ranking.


Authors's Label
Team performance in soccer league
Our Classification
Data of first stage on league, when all teams are still involved
Success in soccer league
a: goal difference (scores minus conceded)
b: goals scored
c: goals conceded
d: rank number in World League (higher numbermeans less success)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-CA-m-afa-n-11-a b = +1,2 p < .05 Goal difference A-CA-m-afa-n-11-a b = +.80 p < .05 Goals scored A-CA-m-afa-n-11-a b = +.38 ns Goals conceded
Sign reversed by WDH team, goals conceded is the reverse of team peformance.
A-CA-m-afa-n-11-a b = -2,7 p < .01 World Cup Ranking

Stronger for happiness of defensive players

b's controled for angry looks in team

Unaffected bij additional control for:
- strength of the team
  - fraction of earlier participations in World Cup
  - team seewed or not (preliminary ranking)
- pictures taken in studio or not
- year fixed effects

Unaffected by additional control for quality of the team as measured by average value of the teams players on the tranfer market (N = 64)