Correlational findings

Study Joshanloo et al. (2014): study ZZ 2014

Students, 14 nations, 2014
N = 2398
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)


Authors's Label
Dynamic externality
Our Classification
Part of Social Axioms Survey (Bond et al. 2004)
Self-report on 21 questions om lack of fate control (external factors determining one's fate):
a  Belief in a religion helps one understand the meaning of life
b  Good deeds will be rewarded, and bad deeds will be punished
c  Religious faith contributes to good mental health
d  There is a supreme being controlling the universe
e  All things in the universe have been determined
f   Belief in a religion makes people good citizens
g  The just will eventually defeat the wicked
h  Religion makes people escape from reality
I   One will succeed if he/she really tries
m Religious beliefs lead to unscientific thinking
n  Knowledge is necessary for success
o  Failure is the beginning of succes
p  There arte many ways for people to predict what will happen in the future
q  Ghosts or spirits are people's fantasy
r   Human behavior changes with the societal context
s  Competition brings about progress
t   Caution helps avoid mistakes
u  Adversity can be overcome by effort

1 'strongly disbelieve'

5 'strongly believe'

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-*-sq-nt-11-a r = -.65 p < .01 AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE lack of fate control in 14 nations