Correlational findings

Study Fritsch et al. (2018): study ZZ Europe 2013

18+aged,working people, 32 European countries, 2013
Survey name
EU- SILC 2013
N = 161127
Non Response
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's Label
Our Classification
Types of economies: aa Iceland, Ireland, UK ba Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Norway bb. Continental-I: Austria, Germany, Netherlands, Switzerland bc. Continental-II: Belgium, France, Luxembourg d. Mediterranean: Cyprus, Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal, Spain ea. Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania eb. Eastern European-I: Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia ec. Eastern European-II: Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia
M = 0.13, SD = 0.336
Related specification variables
1: Self-employed
0: Paid employee (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cb DM = +/- Split by entrepreneurial climate in nation
                              Employment  DM  
                              SELF PAID  
a.  Liberal market economies
    a  Anglo-Saxon            7.64 7.64   0.00
b  Coordinated market economies
   ba Nordic                  8.14 8.17  -0.03
   bb Continental I           7.97 7.85  +0.12
   bc  Continental II         7.56 7.55  +0.01
c  Mediteranian market econ.  6.65 6.99  -0.34
d  Eastern European market economies
   da Baltic states           6.92 6.86  +0.06
   db Eastern Europe I        5.99 6.41  -0.42
   dc Eastern EuropeII        7.27 7.16  +0.11
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cb r = -.04 O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cb OPRC = -.18 p < .01 OLRC controlled for:
- Individual characteristics
  -marital status
  -level of education
  -working hours per week
  -job change situation
  -personal income level
- institutional context (market type in nation)
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cb OLRC = +.45 p < .01 OLRC additionally controled for
- Entreprendurial climate in nations (measured with the Global Entrepreneurship Index GEI
- Interaction GEO * self-employment
O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cb OLRC = + More positive in nations with better entrepreneurial climate (measured with Golobal Enterpreneurship Index) O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cb OLRC = - Largely unaffected by personal income, except lowest income quartile O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-cb OLRC = + More positive in nations with better entrepreneurial climate (measured with Doing of Business Index)