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Correlational findings

Study Gschwandtner et al. (2015): study GB 2012

Public:
16+ aged, general public UK, 2012
Survey name:
UK-BHPS combined waves
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 31946
Non Response:
Assessment:
Multiple methods
Interviews and self completion form

Correlate

Authors's label
Average daily portions of fruits and vegetables
Our Classification
Operationalization
Average daily portions of fruit and vegetables
1: none (reference)
2: 1-2
3: 2-3
4: 3-4
5: 4-5

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-e b = + s 1-2 portions per day (vs none)
- males:  +.09 (05)
- females + 15 (01)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-e b = + s 2-3 portions per day (vs none)
- males:  +.16 (01)
- females + 14 (01)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-e b = + s 3-4 portions per day (vs none)
- males:  +.19 (01)
- females + 27 (01)
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-e b = + s 4-5 portions per day (vs none)
- males:  +.20 (01)
- females + 30 (01)

b's controled for:
- socio-economic backgroud (parents education)
- age
- education
- marital status
- age of youngest child
- ethnicity
- employment status
- region
- health behavior
  - days walk
  - sporting
O-SLW-u-sq-n-7-e b-iv = + Stronger effects in instrumental variable analysis in which the net effect of sporting on happiness is controled. This suggest a causal effect of fruit/vegagetable consumption on happiness