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Correlational findings

Study Bachman et al. (1978): study US 1966

Public:
Public highschool boys followed 8 years from grade 10, USA, 1966-74
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 1628
Non Response:
2.8% at T1, 17.2% at T2, 21.0% at T3, 28.9% at T4, 28.5% at T5
Assessment:
Multiple methods
Interviews, tests and questionnaires

Correlate

Authors's label
Works harder than average
Our Classification
Operationalization
Simple direct question at T1 and T2: "How hard do you think you work in school compared to the other students in your class?" 1 = much less hard;
2 = less hard;  3 = about average:
4 = harder;     5 = much harder

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HP-g-mq-v-5-a tau = +                  Works harder than average
Happiness           T1             T2
T1           tau = +.14 (001)     +.10 (01)
T2           tau = +.12 (001)     +.10 (01)
T3           tau = +.10 (01)      +.06 (ns)
T4           tau = +.06 (ns)      +.03 (ns)
T1:1966, T2:1968, T3:1969, T4:1970