Correlational findings

Study Janz et al. (2001): study US Michigan 1996

Medical Patients, Michigan, United States, followed 1 year, 199?
Survey name
Unnamed study
N = 570
Non Response
Interview: Computer Assisted Telephone Interview (CATI)


Authors's Label
Symptom status
Our Classification
A Subjects were asked about the presence of 14 symptoms of clinical concern in heart disease within 7 days before the interview:
a: chest pain
b: shortness of breath
c: fatigue
d: rapid of irregular heart beat
e: waking with chest pain
f:  waking with shortness of breath
g: dizziness
h: pain other than chest pain
i: numbness or cramping in legs
j: feeling blue
k: feeling tense or stressed
l: feeling worried
m: having trouble falling asleep
n: having trouble sleeping through the night

B In addition for each symptom summing the responses to the question "How would you say the symptom bothers you?" derived a symptom impact score (1=not at all to 5=a lot).

C To assess depressive symptamology an 8-item version of The Center for Epidemological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was included.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-QOL-cm-sq-v-5-a = .26 p < .01 A+B+C