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Correlational findings

Study Dolan & Metcalfe (2012): study US 2011

Public:
Elderly, United States, 2011
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 1173
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
Pain level
Our Classification
Operationalization
1 Restricted:
   a  Pain level 2: moderate pain or discomfort
   b  Pain level 3: extreme pain or discomfort
0 Not restricted: mobility level 1 (reference)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-AB-yd-mq-n-7-c Beta = -.03 p < .05 SOME pain (level 2) vs no pain (level 1) A-AB-yd-mq-n-7-c Beta = -.13 p < .05 EXTREME pain (level 3) vs no pain (level 1) O-SLu-u-sq-n-7-c Beta = -.04 p < .05 SOME pain (level 2) vs no pain (level 1) O-SLu-u-sq-n-7-c Beta = -.15 p < .05 EXTREME pain (level 3)vs no pain (level 1)

All beta's controlled for:
- Mobility restrictions
- Self-care restrictions
- Usual activities restrictions  
- Anxiety

Beta's remain significant when additionally controlled for:
- household income
- gender
- age, age2
- unemployment
- sick from work, disabled
- retired, homemaker
- 2nd job-
- marital status
- ethnic group