Correlational findings

Study Brulé & Veenhoven (2012): study ZZ Europe 2000

Adults, 6 European nations, 2000-2009
Survey name:
Pooled surveys
N = 55000
Non Response:
Multiple methods
Different methods across surveys. Most were conducted face-to-face.


Authors's label
Approval of hierarchy
Our Classification
Ratings on how it should be in society:
a In this society, followers are expected to obey their leader without question
b In this society, power is concentrated at the top
c In this organization, subordinates are expected to obey their boss without question
d In this organization, a person's influence is primarily based on one's ability and contribution to the organization.

Agreement is on a numerical scale, ranging from not desired (1) to much desired (7).

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW---sq-nt-11-a r = -.39 AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE approval of hierarchy in 19 European countries.