Correlational findings

Study Brulé & Veenhoven (2012): study ZZ Europe 2000

Adults, 6 European nations, 2000-2009
Survey name:
Pooled surveys
N = 55000
Non Response:
Multiple asesment methods
Different methods across surveys. Most were conducted face-to-face.


Authors's label
Perception of hierarchy
Our Classification
Agreement to four statements:
a In this society, followers are expected to obey their leader without question
b In this society, power is concentrated at the top
c In this organization, subordinates are expected to obey their boss without question
d In this organization, a person's influence is primarily based on one's ability and contribution to the organization.

Agreement is on a numerical scale, ranging from little (1) to much (7) power distance.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW---sq-nt-11-a r = -.45 AVERAGE happiness by AVERAGE perception of hierachy in 19 European countries.