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Correlational findings

Study Sortheix & Lönnqvist (2014): study ZZ EU 25 2006

Public:
15+ aged, general public, 25 European nations, 2006
Survey name:
EU-ESS 3: 2006
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 44106
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
Random slope variance
Our Classification
Operationalization
Selfreport of similarity with verbal portraits of different people who expressed a value orientation.
A. Security
5. It is important to him/her to live in secure surroundings. He/she avoids anything that might endanger his/her safety.
14. It is important to him/her that the government insure his/her safety against all threats. He/she wants the state to be strong so it can defend its citizens.
B. Conformity
7. He/she believes that people should do what they're told. He/she thinks people should follow rules at all times, even when no-one is watching.
16. It is important to him/her always to behave properly. He/she wants to avoid doing anything people would say is wrong.
C. Tradition
9. It is important to him/her to be humble and modest. He/she tries not to draw attention to herself.
20. Tradition is important to him/her. He/she tries to follow the customs handed down by his/her religion or his/her family.
D. Benevolence
12. It's very important to him/her to help the people around him/her. He/she wants to care for their well-being.
18. It is important to him/her to be loyal to his/her friends. He/she wants to devote herself to people close to him/her.
E. Universalism
3. He/she thinks it is important that every person in the world be treated equally. He/she believes everyone should have equal opportunities in life.
8. It is important to him/her to listen to people who are different from him/her.
Even when he/she disagrees with them, he/she still wants to understand them.
19. He/she strongly believes that people should care for nature. Looking after the environment is important to him/her.
F. Self-direction
1. Thinking up new ideas and being creative is important to him/her. He/she likes to do things in her own original way.
11. It is important to him/her to make his/her own decisions about what he/she does. He/she likes to be free and not depend on others.
G. Stimulation
6. He/she likes surprises and is always looking for new things to do. He/she thinks it is important to do lots of different things in life.
15. He/she looks for adventures and likes to take risks. He/she wants to have an exciting life.
H. Hedonism
10. Having a good time is important to him/her. He/she likes to “spoil” him/herself.
21. He/she seeks every chance he/she can to have fun. It is important to him/her to do things that give him/her pleasure.
I. Achievement
4. It's very important to him/her to show his/her abilities. He/she wants people to admire what he/she does.
13. Being very successful is important to him/her. He/she hopes people will recognize his/her achievements.
J. Power
2. It is important to him/her to be rich. He/she wants to have a lot of money and expensive things.
17. It is important to him/her to be in charge and tell others what to do. He/She wants people to do what he/she says.

How much are you like this person:
6 very much like me
5
4
3
2
1  not like me at all

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-Sum---mq-n-11-a b-fix = +.08 p < .05 Individual value: security. O-Sum---mq-n-11-a b-fix = +.07 p < .05 Individual value: conformity. O-Sum---mq-n-11-a b-fix = +.06 p < .05 Individual value: tradition. O-Sum---mq-n-11-a b-fix = +.10 p < .05 Individual value: benevolence. O-Sum---mq-n-11-a b-fix = +.10 p < .05 Individual value: universalism. O-Sum---mq-n-11-a b-fix = +.10 p < .05 Individual value: self-direction. O-Sum---mq-n-11-a b-fix = +.08 p < .05 Individual value: hedonism. O-Sum---mq-n-11-a b-fix = +.03 ns Individual value: stimulation. O-Sum---mq-n-11-a b-fix = +.10 p < .05 Individual value: achievement. O-Sum---mq-n-11-a b-fix = +.05 p < .05 Individual value: power.

B-fix'scontroled for:
- individual level characteristics
  - age
  - gender
  - education
  - satisfaction with income
- nation level characteristics
  - socio-economic development (HDI)
  - value climate
    - value of autonomy (vs embeddedness)
    - value of equality (vs hierarchy)
- cross level interaction
O-Sum---mq-n-11-a b-fix = Splitt-up by the human development index of the nation:
- universal pattern (same direction of values)
  Security
  Benevolence
  Hedonisme
  Power
- cultural difference (opposite direction of values)
  Conformity
  Tradition
  Universalism
  Self-direction
  Achievement