Correlational findings

Study Layard et al. (2013): study GB 2004

34 aged, United Kingdom, followed from childhood, 2004
Survey name
UK-British Cohort Study
N = 8868
Non Response
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's Label
Emotional health
Our Classification
Error Estimates
Data set using imputation for missing variables.
Sum of replies on 24 items assessed at age 5,10,16 and 26.

Items at age 5 (filled in by parents):
a    Complains of headaches
b    Complaints of stomach ache or vomiting
c    Complaints of biliousness
d    Has temper tantrums (loss of temper)
e    Does child have sleeping difficulty
                 If yes, which difficulties:
                  - Getting off to sleep
                  - Waking during the night
                  - Waking early in the morning
                  - Nightmares or night terrors
                  - Wetting him/herself:
                     - Ever wetting bed during the night
                     - Ever wetting bed during the day
                     - Wetting pants in daytime                  
f      Soils or ever make mess of his/her pants
g    Eating or appetite problems
                     - Not eating enough
                     - Overeating
                     - Faddiness
                     - Other eating problems
                     - Child attends school
                             If yes: Tears on arrival?
h   Often worried, worries about many things
i  Tends to do things on his own - rather solitary  
j   Irritable. Is quick to "fly of the handle"
k  Often appears miserable, unhappy, tearful or distressed
l  Tends to be fearful or afraid of new things or new situations or new situations
m  Is fussy of over
The score at age 5 is calculated of all 28   (sub-)questions
Items at age 10 are the same as at age 5 but the following item was added:
Truants from school

Items at age 16:
Only the behavioral items used at age 5 and age 10, plus the following emotional health items:
Do you have/feel/are you:
a Backaches
b Feeling tired
c Miserable or depressed
d Worries
e Sleeping difficulties
f  Worries about health
g Violent rage
h People annoy and irritate you
i Twitching of the face, head and shoulders
j Suddenly become scared for no good reason
k Scared if alone
l  Easily upset or irritated
mFrightened of going out alone or meeting people
n Keyed up and jittery
o Suffer from indigestion
p Suffer from upset stomach
q Poor appetite
r Little things getting on your nerves and wearing you out
s Heart race like mad
t Bad pains in your eyes
Questions at age 26:
a   Do you often have backache?
b   Do you feel tired most of the time?
c   Do you often feel miserable or depressed?
d   Do you often have bad hadaches?
e   Do you often get worried about things?
f   Do you usually have great difficulty in falling or staying asleep?
g Do you usually wake unnecessarily early in the morning?
h Do you wear yourself out worrying about your health?
i  Do you often get into a violent rage?
j  Do people often annoy and irritate you?
k Have you at times have twitchting of the face, head or shoulders?
mDo you often become suddenly scared for no good reason?
n  Are you scared to be alone when there are no friends near you?
o  Are you easily ubset or irritated?
p  Are you frightened of going out alone or of meeting people?
q  Are you constant keyed up and jittery?
r   Do you suffer from indigestion?
s  Do you suffer from an upset stomach?
t  Is your appetite poor?
u  Does every little thing get on your nerves and wear you out?
v  Does your heart often race like mad?
w  Do you often have bad pains in your eyes?
x  Are you troubled with rheumatism or fibrositus?
y  Have you ever had a nervous breakdown?

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bb r = + Happiness at age 34 by emotional health in childhood up to:
- Age 5: r= +.07
- Age 10:r= +.09
- Age 16:r= +.24
- Age 26:r= +.27
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bb Beta = +.17 Happiness at age 34 by mental health up to:
- age 5: beta= +.17
- age 10:beta= +.05

Indirect effect of childhood emotional health:
beta= +.08
Subtraction of total variance in emotional health from childhood emotional health:
beta= +.08

Beta controlled for childhood (age 5,10,16):
- Intellectual performance
- Good conduct
- Emotional health
- Income (age 10)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bb Beta = +.10 Beta additionally controlled for: adult
- Income
- Education
- Employed
- Has partner
- Good conduct(age 16-34)
- Self-perceived health(age 26)
- Emotional health (26)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bb Beta = +.19 Emotional health at age 5 only O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bb Beta = +.29 Emotional health at age 10 only O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bb Beta = +.16 Emotional health at age 16 only.

Beta controlled for childhood:
- Intellectual performance(5,10,16)
- Good conduct (5,10,16)
- Emotional health (5,16)
- Social class of father (10)
- Family income (10)
- Number of siblings (10)
- Average employment rate (birth, 5, 10)
- Age when mother left full time education
- Age when father left full time education
- Mother's average mental health (5, 10)
- Post-marital conception
- Both natural parents live in household (10)
- Gender (female)