Correlational findings

Study Layard et al. (2013): study GB 2004

34 aged, United Kingdom, followed from childhood, 2004
Survey name:
UK-British Cohort Study
N = 8868
Non Response:
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's label
Emotional health
Our Classification
Sum of replies on 24 items assessed at age 5,10,16 and 26.

Items at age 5 (filled in by parents):
a    Complains of headaches
b    Complaints of stomach ache or vomiting
c    Complaints of biliousness
d    Has temper tantrums (loss of temper)
e    Does child have sleeping difficulty
                 If yes, which difficulties:
                  - Getting off to sleep
                  - Waking during the night
                  - Waking early in the morning
                  - Nightmares or night terrors
                  - Wetting him/herself:
                     - Ever wetting bed during the night
                     - Ever wetting bed during the day
                     - Wetting pants in daytime                  
f      Soils or ever make mess of his/her pants
g    Eating or appetite problems
                     - Not eating enough
                     - Overeating
                     - Faddiness
                     - Other eating problems
                     - Child attends school
                             If yes: Tears on arrival?
h   Often worried, worries about many things
i  Tends to do things on his own - rather solitary  
j   Irritable. Is quick to "fly of the handle"
k  Often appears miserable, unhappy, tearful or distressed
l  Tends to be fearful or afraid of new things or new situations or new situations
m  Is fussy of over
The score at age 5 is calculated of all 28   (sub-)questions
Items at age 10 are the same as at age 5 but the following item was added:
Truants from school

Items at age 16:
Only the behavioral items used at age 5 and age 10, plus the following emotional health items:
Do you have/feel/are you:
a Backaches
b Feeling tired
c Miserable or depressed
d Worries
e Sleeping difficulties
f  Worries about health
g Violent rage
h People annoy and irritate you
i Twitching of the face, head and shoulders
j Suddenly become scared for no good reason
k Scared if alone
l  Easily upset or irritated
mFrightened of going out alone or meeting people
n Keyed up and jittery
o Suffer from indigestion
p Suffer from upset stomach
q Poor appetite
r Little things getting on your nerves and wearing you out
s Heart race like mad
t Bad pains in your eyes
Questions at age 26:
a   Do you often have backache?
b   Do you feel tired most of the time?
c   Do you often feel miserable or depressed?
d   Do you often have bad hadaches?
e   Do you often get worried about things?
f   Do you usually have great difficulty in falling or staying asleep?
g Do you usually wake unnecessarily early in the morning?
h Do you wear yourself out worrying about your health?
i  Do you often get into a violent rage?
j  Do people often annoy and irritate you?
k Have you at times have twitchting of the face, head or shoulders?
mDo you often become suddenly scared for no good reason?
n  Are you scared to be alone when there are no friends near you?
o  Are you easily ubset or irritated?
p  Are you frightened of going out alone or of meeting people?
q  Are you constant keyed up and jittery?
r   Do you suffer from indigestion?
s  Do you suffer from an upset stomach?
t  Is your appetite poor?
u  Does every little thing get on your nerves and wear you out?
v  Does your heart often race like mad?
w  Do you often have bad pains in your eyes?
x  Are you troubled with rheumatism or fibrositus?
y  Have you ever had a nervous breakdown?

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bb r = + Happiness at age 34 by emotional health in childhood up to:
- Age 5: r= +.07
- Age 10:r= +.09
- Age 16:r= +.24
- Age 26:r= +.27
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bb Beta = +.17 Happiness at age 34 by mental health up to:
- age 5: beta= +.17
- age 10:beta= +.05

Indirect effect of childhood emotional health:
beta= +.08
Subtraction of total variance in emotional health from childhood emotional health:
beta= +.08

Beta controlled for childhood (age 5,10,16):
- Intellectual performance
- Good conduct
- Emotional health
- Income (age 10)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bb Beta = +.10 Beta additionally controlled for: adult
- Income
- Education
- Employed
- Has partner
- Good conduct(age 16-34)
- Self-perceived health(age 26)
- Emotional health (26)
O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bb Beta = +.19 Emotional health at age 5 only O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bb Beta = +.29 Emotional health at age 10 only O-SLC-h-sq-n-11-bb Beta = +.16 Emotional health at age 16 only.

Beta controlled for childhood:
- Intellectual performance(5,10,16)
- Good conduct (5,10,16)
- Emotional health (5,16)
- Social class of father (10)
- Family income (10)
- Number of siblings (10)
- Average employment rate (birth, 5, 10)
- Age when mother left full time education
- Age when father left full time education
- Mother's average mental health (5, 10)
- Post-marital conception
- Both natural parents live in household (10)
- Gender (female)