Correlational findings

Study Ludwig (1971): study US 1966

Female students, undergraduates, University of Wisconsin, USA, 196?
N = 72
Non Response
81%; 61% refusal, 5% eliminated on basis of screening data, 15% miscellaneous re
Multiple assesment methods
Structured questionnaires, tests; and interview.


Authors's Label
Desire for participation in social activities
Our Classification
Ss answered these questions at the end of an experimental situation in which their self-esteem was experimentally altered. This was done by means of a false personality report dealing with the subject's creativity, maturity and other things.
Related specification variables
Three indicators:
1. Exiting activities:
   2-item index of closed questions
   on whether at this moment one
   feels like being a lead actress,
   and whether one feels like dating
   with an attractive guy.
   (From Activity Reaction Scale;
   see Jackson & Lyons, 1969)
2. Boring social activities:
   2-item index of closed questions on
   whether at this moment one feels
   like being at a dull party, and
   wether one feels like being at a
   slow moving academic discussion.

3. Social activities:
   5-item index of closed questions on
   whether at this moment one feels
   like engaging in activities which
   are characterized as social (+),
   conversational (+), non-social (-),
   withdrawn(-), or isolated (-).
   (Item from a 36-item Excitement
   Adjective Checklist).

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-AOL-u-mq-v-10-a r = +.30 p < .05 For happy Ss desire for participation is    unaffected by both bolstered and reduced    self-esteem.
For unhappy Ss desire for participation is unaffected by reduced self-esteem and increased by bolstered self-esteem.
A-AOL-u-mq-v-10-a SNR = ns - For both happy and unhappy Ss desire for parti-
  cipation is unaffected by both bolstered and
  reduced self-esteem.
A-AOL-u-mq-v-10-a r = +.11 ns