- Female students, undergraduates, University of Wisconsin, USA, 196?
- N = 72
- Non Response:
- 81%; 61% refusal, 5% eliminated on basis of screening data, 15% miscellaneous re
Multiple asesment methods
Structured questionnaires, tests; and interview.
- Authors's label
- Our Classification
- Two indicators:
1. Adjective checklist scored for how
do you feel at the moment?
(Modified Leventhal Self Esteem
scale; see Dabbs & Leventhal, 1966)
2. Each subject was asked to place her-
self and 5 other persons (such as a
friend, a selfish person, a grand-
mother, a sad person, a doctor, a
strong person, etc.) in a line of
6 circles. This was done 6 times
with different combinations of
persons. Each placement of the self
in the circle farthest to the left
was most indicative of high self-
esteem(score 6), and placement in the
circle farthest to the right of low
self-esteem (score 1).
(Ziller Self-Esteem Scale; see
Ziller et al., 1964).
Observed Relation with Happiness
For unhappy Ss self-esteem is higher by bolstered self-esteem than by reduced self-esteem.
bolsered self-esteem and decreased by reduced
- For unhappy Ss self-esteem is high after bolse-
ring of self-esteem than after reduction.