print

Correlational findings

Study Ludwig (1971): study US 1966

Public:
Female students, undergraduates, University of Wisconsin, USA, 196?
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 72
Non Response:
81%; 61% refusal, 5% eliminated on basis of screening data, 15% miscellaneous re
Assessment:
Multiple methods
Structured questionnaires, tests; and interview.

Correlate

Authors's label
Desire to participate in exciting activities
Our Classification
Operationalization
Six indicators:
1. 6-item index of closed questions on
   whether at this moment one feels
   like engaging in activities which
   are characterized as exciting (+),
   relaxing (-), tranquil (-), or
   restful (-) (items from a 36-item
   Excitement Adjective Checklist).
2. 4-item index of closed questions on
   whether at this moment one feels
   like being a lead actress in a play
   dating with an attractive guy dri-
   ving a sports car, walking through a
   forest late at night (from the
   Activity Reaction Scale; see
   Jackson  & Lyons, 1969).
3. Social activities: 2-item index of
   closed questions on whether at this
   moment one feels like being a lead
   actress in a play and meeting an at-
   tractive guy for the first time and
   being asked out for a date.
4. Non-social activities: 2-item index
   of closed questions on whether at
   this moment one feels like driving a
   sports car as it will go, and wal-
   king through a forest late at night
   by oneself.
5. 4-item index of exciting activities,
   scored for 'how exciting does this
   activity seem to you right now?
6. 4-item index of exciting activities,
   scored for 'how enjoyable does this
   activity seem to you right now?'

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-AOL-u-mq-v-10-a r = +.06 ns Unaffected by manipulated self-esteem.
- For happy Ss desire to participate is unaffected by bolstered self-esteem and increased by reduced self-esteem.
- For unhappy Ss desire to participate is unaffected by both reduced and bolstered self-esteem.

Similar scores measuring desire for participation in risky activities, scary activities and challenging activities were composed. These scores were not related to hedonic level either.
                                     
                                 
A-AOL-u-mq-v-10-a r = +.24 p < .05 Unaffected by manipulated self-esteem.
- For both happy and unhappy Ss desire for parti-
  cipation is unaffected by both bolstered and
  reduced self-esteem.
               
             
               
                        
            
A-AOL-u-mq-v-10-a r = +.30 p < .05 Affected by manipulated self-esteem (.10)
- For happy Ss desire for participation is unaf-
  fected by both bolstered and reduced self-
  esteem.
- For unhappy Ss desire for participation is un-
  affected by reduced self-esteem, and increased
  by bolstered self-esteem.
             

A-AOL-u-mq-v-10-a r = +.09 ns Unaffected by manipulated self-esteem.
For both happy and unhappy Ss desire for partici-
pation is unaffected by both bolstered and reduced self-esteem.
           
           
                   
A-AOL-u-mq-v-10-a r = +.27 p < .05 Ss answered these questions at the end of an experimental situation in which their self-esteem was experimentally altered. This was done by means of a false personality report dealing with the subject's creativity, maturity and other things.         

A-AOL-u-mq-v-10-a r = +.33 p < .01 Ss answered these questions at the end of an experimental situation in which their self-esteem was experimentally altered. This was done by means of a false personality report dealing with the subject's creativity, maturity and other things.