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Correlational findings

Study Ludwig (1971): study US 1966

Public:
Female students, undergraduates, University of Wisconsin, USA, 196?
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 72
Non Response:
81%; 61% refusal, 5% eliminated on basis of screening data, 15% miscellaneous re
Assessment:
Multiple methods
Structured questionnaires, tests; and interview.

Correlate

Authors's label
Depression
Our Classification
Operationalization
21-item index containing closed questions on pessimism, failure, dissatisfaction, sadness, guilt, punishment, disappointment, inferiority, suicide, crying, irritation, losing interest, indecisiveness, ugliness, inability to work, sleeplessness, tiredness, lack of appetite, loss of weight, concern about health, sexual listlessness. (Depression Inventory; see Beck et al., 1961)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-AOL-u-mq-v-10-a r = -.47 p < .01