Correlational findings

Study Palmore & Luikart (1972): study US 1968

46+ aged, whites, North Carolina, USA, 1968-70
N = 502
Non Response
Interview: face-to-face
One whole-day interviews, tests and examinations.


Authors's Label
Internal control
Our Classification
M= 2.4   SD= 1.0
Related specification variables
Index containing four pairs of statements, e.g. 'some of the good and some of the bad things in my life have happened by chance' (external control). 'What's happened to me has been my own doing' (internal control).
Each S was asked which one of each pair is more true for him.
(from the Internal-External Control of Reinforcement Scale; see Jesson et al. (1968).
0 = external
1 = internal
Scale 0-4

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks C-BW-c-sq-l-10-ca r = +.16 All C-BW-c-sq-l-10-ca r = +.20 p < .05 Women. C-BW-c-sq-l-10-ca r = +.21 p < .05 Ages 60-71. C-BW-c-sq-l-10-ca Beta = +.16 All.Step wise multiple regression:
selfrated health     R= +.43
org. activity        B1=+.46
internal control     B2=+.47
performance status   B3=+.48
productive hours     B4=+.49
All variables p<.05
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-ca Beta = +.20 p < .05 Women.step wise multiple regression:
selfrated health     R= +.42
org. activity        B1=+.45
internal control     B2=+.47
All variables p<.05
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-ca Beta = +.28 p < .05 Ages 60-71.Step wise multiple regression
selfrated health     R= +.40
internal control     B1=+.44
org. activity        B2=+.45
All variables p<.05