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Correlational findings

Study Shields et al. (2009): study AU 2001

Public:
15+ aged general public, Australia, 2001
Survey name:
AU-HILDA 2001
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 13903
Non Response:
34%
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face
Additionally self-completion questionnaires were used.

Correlate

Authors's label
Remoteness
Our Classification
Operationalization
Calculated by the  accessibility to some 201 Australian service centres based on road distances based on the road distance to service centres.
Classified into:
a) Major cities
b) Inner regional
c) Outer regional
d) Remote areas

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-d DM = +                  Males   Females   Total
Major cities     7.81    7.90      7.86
Inner regional   7.99    8.15      8.07
Outer regional   8.12    8.25      8.19
Remote           8.22    8.39      8.31
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-d OPRC = +                  Males       Females   
Major cities     ----------------reference     
Inner regional   -.00(ns)     +.06(ns)     
Outer regional   +.13(.05)    +.19(.01)      
Remote           +.12(ns)     +.20(.1)

OPRC's controlled for:
- state/territory of residence
- neighbourhood characteristics
  a) unemployment rate
  b) rate of single parents
  c) rate of immigrants from non-English
     speaking countries
  d) rate of home owners
  e) rate of employees working in a
     professional occupation
  f) aged 65 years and over
- age and age squared
- marital status
- number of children
- number of adults in household
- being an Aborginal/Torres Strait Islander
- being an immigrant
- English speaking ability
- health
- education
- employment status
- household income
- house ownership
- religion
- frequency-preference of paying bills
- suspicious of interview questions
- others present during interview
- respondent was living with both parents  
  at age 14
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-d OPRC = +                  Males      Females   
Major cities     ----------------reference     
Inner regional   -.03(ns)   +.05(ns)    
Outer regional   +.09(ns)   +.17(.01)    
Remote           +.04(ns)   +.14(ns)

OPRC's additionally controlled for:
- 3 additional neighbourhood characteristics
  g) social interaction and social support
  h) local disamenity
  i) insecurity in the neighbourhood
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-d OPRC = +                  Males     Females   
Major cities     ----------------reference     
Inner regional   -.03(ns)   +.05(ns)    
Outer regional   +.09(ns)   +.17(.01)    
Remote           +.04(ns)   +.18(ns)

OPRC's additionally controlled for:
- duration of living in residence
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-d OPRC = +                  Males     Females   
Major cities     ----------------reference     
Inner regional   -.05(ns)   +.04(ns)    
Outer regional   +.05(ns)   +.13(.1)    
Remote           +.08(ns)   +.28(.05)

OPRC's additionally controlled for:
- relative income
instead of:
- duration of living in residence