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Correlational findings

Study Shields et al. (2009): study AU 2001

Public:
15+ aged general public, Australia, 2001
Survey name:
AU-HILDA 2001
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 13903
Non Response:
34%
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face
Additionally self-completion questionnaires were used.

Correlate

Authors's Label
Remoteness
Our Classification
Remarks
Accessibility/Remoteness Index for Australia (ARIA)
Distribution
a) 59%, b) 28%, c) 12%, d) 2%
Operationalization
Calculated by the  accessibility to some 201 Australian service centres based on road distances based on the road distance to service centres.
Classified into:
a) Major cities
b) Inner regional
c) Outer regional
d) Remote areas

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-d DM = +                  Males   Females   Total
Major cities     7.81    7.90      7.86
Inner regional   7.99    8.15      8.07
Outer regional   8.12    8.25      8.19
Remote           8.22    8.39      8.31
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-d OPRC = +                  Males       Females   
Major cities     ----------------reference     
Inner regional   -.00(ns)     +.06(ns)     
Outer regional   +.13(.05)    +.19(.01)      
Remote           +.12(ns)     +.20(.1)

OPRC's controlled for:
- state/territory of residence
- neighbourhood characteristics
  a) unemployment rate
  b) rate of single parents
  c) rate of immigrants from non-English
     speaking countries
  d) rate of home owners
  e) rate of employees working in a
     professional occupation
  f) aged 65 years and over
- age and age squared
- marital status
- number of children
- number of adults in household
- being an Aborginal/Torres Strait Islander
- being an immigrant
- English speaking ability
- health
- education
- employment status
- household income
- house ownership
- religion
- frequency-preference of paying bills
- suspicious of interview questions
- others present during interview
- respondent was living with both parents  
  at age 14
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-d OPRC = +                  Males      Females   
Major cities     ----------------reference     
Inner regional   -.03(ns)   +.05(ns)    
Outer regional   +.09(ns)   +.17(.01)    
Remote           +.04(ns)   +.14(ns)

OPRC's additionally controlled for:
- 3 additional neighbourhood characteristics
  g) social interaction and social support
  h) local disamenity
  i) insecurity in the neighbourhood
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-d OPRC = +                  Males     Females   
Major cities     ----------------reference     
Inner regional   -.03(ns)   +.05(ns)    
Outer regional   +.09(ns)   +.17(.01)    
Remote           +.04(ns)   +.18(ns)

OPRC's additionally controlled for:
- duration of living in residence
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-d OPRC = +                  Males     Females   
Major cities     ----------------reference     
Inner regional   -.05(ns)   +.04(ns)    
Outer regional   +.05(ns)   +.13(.1)    
Remote           +.08(ns)   +.28(.05)

OPRC's additionally controlled for:
- relative income
instead of:
- duration of living in residence