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Correlational findings

Study Ek et al. (2008): study FI Northern Finland 1997

Public:
31-aged general public, Finland, 1997-1998
Survey name:
FI-Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 5696
Non Response:
21%
Assessment:
Questionnaire: paper

Correlate

Authors's label
Attitude towards the future
Our Classification
Operationalization
Self-report on 6-item Life Orientation Scale:
1) pessimistic
2) neutral (reference)
3) optimistic

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-d OR = .38 p < .05 OPTIMISTIC (vs neutral)
Men
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-d OR = .42 p < .05 Women O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-d OR = 4.69 p < .05 PESSIMISTIC (vs neutral)
Men
O-SLu-g-sq-v-3-d OR = 4.06 p < .05 Women: No controls

Or when additionally controlled for:
- education
- employment history
- migration history
- social support
- active coping strategies
- passive coping strategies

Odds ratio of 1 means equal happiness, a higher odds ratio than 1 means less happiness, a lower odds ratio than 1 means higher happiness. So optimism is associated with more happiness, whereas pessimism is associated with less happiness.