Correlational findings

Study Robinson et al. (2001): study US 1986

Toddlers, same-sex twins, Colorado, United States, followed from 14 to 24 months of age, 1986-1989
Survey name
Unnamed study
N = 400
Non Response
Behavioural observation
behavioral observation at home and in laboratory, recorded on video tape; parental reports in questionnaire


Authors's Label
Prohibition-positive hedonic tone
Our Classification
Twins were alternatingly assessed in the same room while the other was present.
Assessed just before Bayley testing in the home and again after inhibition rooom procedure with mother;
At home, infants are shown a plastic "glitter wand" by examiner, which is then placed in front of the infant, saying: "Don't touch."
In the lab, infants are shown a basket with three colorful balls placed in front of the infant saying: "Now, don't touch."
Behavior was videotaped and rated lateron.

Two ratings were made at different points of time:
a beginning with onset of prohibition, ending with child touching toy
b beginning with onset of permission, ending 30 sec later

1 no positive emotion observed
2 positive interest
3 smiling
4 strong laughter

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-CA-mi-tsb-v-4-a r = +.34 p < .01 at 14 months A-CA-mi-tsb-v-4-a r = +.36 p < .01 at 20 months A-CA-mi-tsb-v-4-a r = +.34 p < .01 at 24 months