Correlational findings

Study Robinson et al. (2001): study US 1986

Toddlers, same-sex twins, Colorado, United States, followed from 14 to 24 months of age, 1986-1989
Survey name:
Unnamed study
N = 400
Non Response:
Behavioural observation
behavioral observation at home and in laboratory, recorded on video tape; parental reports in questionnaire


Authors's label
Prohibition-positive hedonic tone
Our Classification
Assessed just before Bayley testing in the home and again after inhibition rooom procedure with mother;
At home, infants are shown a plastic "glitter wand" by examiner, which is then placed in front of the infant, saying: "Don't touch."
In the lab, infants are shown a basket with three colorful balls placed in front of the infant saying: "Now, don't touch."
Behavior was videotaped and rated lateron.

Two ratings were made at different points of time:
a beginning with onset of prohibition, ending with child touching toy
b beginning with onset of permission, ending 30 sec later

1 no positive emotion observed
2 positive interest
3 smiling
4 strong laughter

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-CA-mi-tsb-v-4-a r = +.34 p < .01 at 14 months A-CA-mi-tsb-v-4-a r = +.36 p < .01 at 20 months A-CA-mi-tsb-v-4-a r = +.34 p < .01 at 24 months