Correlational findings

Study Robinson et al. (2001): study US 1986

Toddlers, same-sex twins, Colorado, United States, followed from 14 to 24 months of age, 1986-1989
Survey name
Unnamed study
N = 400
Non Response
Behavioural observation
behavioral observation at home and in laboratory, recorded on video tape; parental reports in questionnaire


Authors's Label
Empathy-positive expression
Our Classification
Twins were alternatingly assessed in the same room while the other was present. For more procedural details see chapter 3 of "Infancy to Early Childhood" by Emde and Hewitt, 2001.
Simulated distress to another, which tended to induce empathy:
each twin was exposed to distress
a by examiner (at home & in lab)
b by mother (at home & in lab)
c by prerecorded infant cry (only in lab)
A maximum of each presentations was made at each age.

Rating scale:
1 no positive emotion observed
2 positive interest
3 smiling
4 strong laughter

rating for the 30sec simulated distress

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-CA-mi-tsb-v-4-a r = +.30 p < .01 at 14 months A-CA-mi-tsb-v-4-a r = +.19 p < .01 at 20 months A-CA-mi-tsb-v-4-a r = +.26 p < .01 at 24 months