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Correlational findings

Study Oswald et al. (2007): study ZZ Europe 2002

Public:
75-89 aged, living alone in urban districts, five European nations 2002-2004
Survey name:
ENABLE-AGE
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 1918
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
Housing Variable Set
Our Classification
Operationalization
A. Environmental barriers
It was operationalized as the number of environmental barriers in the home and assessed by Housing Enabler Instrument:
A. Outdoor Environment
a: General
1. Narrow paths (less than 130 cm)
2. Irregular walking surface
b: Parking
c:Seating places
Other features
B. Entrances
This item refers to stairs, ramps and lifts outdoors in the immediate vicinity of the entrance or in stairwells.
A: general
B: stairs
.
.
.
For each environmental barrier item, the instrument included predefined severity ratings as points (1-4) quantifying the severity of the accessibility problems predicted to arise in each case.
1: potential accessibility problem
4: very severe accessibility problem

B. Magnitude of Accesibilty Problems
On the basis of the assessments of Step 1 and 2 of Housing Enabler Instrument with a use of a complex matrix including the predefined severity ratings from 1 to 4, the profile of the functional limitations identified for each person is juxtaposed with the environmental barriers present in the home environment. The sum of all the predefined points is used to calculate a score that indicates the magnitude of accessibility problems caused by a particular combination of functional limitations and environmental barriers.

C.Physical Environmental Aspects
It was operationalized as the support level of physical environment of the home for the performance activities. It was measured by Usability in My Home Questionnaire (Fange & Iwarsson, 1999).Physical Environmental Aspects  subscale included 6 items:
-in terms of how you normally manage your washing up,
.
.
.
-to what extent is the home environment suitably designed?
(Scored as 1-5)
Full text is not reported.

D.Activity Aspects
It was operationalized as the support level of physical environment of the home for the performance of activities. It was measured by Usability in My Home Questionnaire (Fange & Iwarsson, 1999). Activity Aspects subscale included 4 items such as "How usable do you feel that the entrance of your home is?"
Full text is not reported.

E.Behavioral Aspects
Behavioral aspects of housing was assessed by 6 items of Meaning of Home questionnaire:
a. living in a place which is well-designed and geared to my needs
b. managing things without the help of others
c. being familiar with my immediate surroundings
d. feeling safe
e. meeting family, friends and acquaintances
f. having to live in poor housing conditions
g. having a nice view
h. doing everyday tasks (e.g. housework)
i. being bored
j. knowing my home like the back of my hand
k. living in a place where I can get no support or help from others
l. living in a place that is comfortable and tastefully furnished
m. being able to change or rearrange things as I please
n. being ale to relax
o. feeling that the home has become a burden
p. not having to accommodate anyone's wishes but my own
q. thinking about the past (e.g. important persons and events)
r. enjoying my privacy and being undisturbed
s. being excluded from social and community life
t. having a base from which I can pursue activities
u. no longer being able to keep up with the demands of my home (e.g. maintenance)
v. thinking about what living here will be like in the future
w. feeling comfortable and cozy
x. being able to receive visitors
y. being confined to the rooms (and things) inside the home
z. being able to do whatever I please
aa. feeling lonely
ab. Having a good relationship with the neighbors
Scored 0-10, from 'strongly disagree' to 'strongly agree'

F. Physical Aspects
Physical aspects of housing was assessed by 7 items of Meaning of Home questionnaire:
a. living in a place which is well-designed and geared to my needs
b. managing things without the help of others
c. being familiar with my immediate surroundings
d. feeling safe
e. meeting family, friends and acquaintances
f. having to live in poor housing conditions
g. having a nice view
h. doing everyday tasks (e.g. housework)
i. being bored
j. knowing my home like the back of my hand
k. living in a place where I can get no support or help from others
l. living in a place that is comfortable and tastefully furnished
m. being able to change or rearrange things as I please
n. being ale to relax
o. feeling that the home has become a burden
p. not having to accommodate anyone's wishes but my own
q. thinking about the past (e.g. important persons and events)
r. enjoying my privacy and being undisturbed
s. being excluded from social and community life
t. having a base from which I can pursue activities
u. no longer being able to keep up with the demands of my home (e.g. maintenance)
v. thinking about what living here will be like in the future
w. feeling comfortable and cozy
x. being able to receive visitors
y. being confined to the rooms (and things) inside the home
z. being able to do whatever I please
aa. feeling lonely
ab. Having a good relationship with the neighbors
Scored 0-10, from 'strongly disagree' to 'strongly agree'

G.Cognitive-Emotional Aspects
Cognitive-emotional aspects of housing was assessed by 10 items of Meaning of Home questionnaire:
a. living in a place which is well-designed and geared to my needs
b. managing things without the help of others
c. being familiar with my immediate surroundings
d. feeling safe
e. meeting family, friends and acquaintances
f. having to live in poor housing conditions
g. having a nice view
h. doing everyday tasks (e.g. housework)
i. being bored
j. knowing my home like the back of my hand
k. living in a place where I can get no support or help from others
l. living in a place that is comfortable and tastefully furnished
m. being able to change or rearrange things as I please
n. being ale to relax
o. feeling that the home has become a burden
p. not having to accommodate anyone's wishes but my own. thinking about the past (e.g. important persons and events)
q. enjoying my privacy and being undisturbed
r. being excluded from social and community life
s. having a base from which I can pursue activities
t. no longer being able to keep up with the demands of my home (e.g. maintenance)
u. thinking about what living here will be like in the future
v. feeling comfortable and cozy
w. being able to receive visitors. being confined to the rooms (and things) inside the home
x. being able to do whatever I please
y. feeling lonely
z. having a good relationship with the neighbors
Scored 0-10, from 'strongly disagree' to 'strongly agree'

H. Social Aspects
Social aspects of housing was assessed by 5 items of Meaning of Home questionnaire:
a. living in a place which is well-designed and geared to my needs
b. managing things without the help of others
c. being familiar with my immediate surroundings
d. feeling safe
e. meeting family, friends and acquaintances
f. having to live in poor housing conditions
g. having a nice view
h. doing everyday tasks (e.g. housework)
i. being bored
j. knowing my home like the back of my hand
k. living in a place where I can get no support or help from others
l. living in a place that is comfortable and tastefully furnished
m. being able to change or rearrange things as I please
n. being ale to relax
o. feeling that the home has become a burden
p. not having to accommodate anyone's wishes but my own
q. thinking about the past (e.g. important persons and events)
r. enjoying my privacy and being undisturbed
s. being excluded from social and community life
t. having a base from which I can pursue activities
u. no longer being able to keep up with the demands of my home (e.g. maintenance)
v. thinking about what living here will be like in the future
w. feeling comfortable and cozy
x. being able to receive visitors
y. being confined to the rooms (and things) inside the home
z. being able to do whatever I please
aa. feeling lonely
ab. Having a good relationship with the neighbors
Scored 0-10, from 'strongly disagree' to 'strongly agree'

I. Housing Related External Control Beliefs

Housing-related control beliefs assessment was assessed by Housing-Related Control Beliefs Questionnaire:

a. Internal Control:
aa: I am able to set up my apartment/house in accordance with my own personal tastes and ideas.
ab: It is up to me whether or not I make use of nearby support services and community facilities that could make my life easier.
ac: In my apartment/house, everything is going to stay just as it is for I do not care what anybody says.
ad: It is up to me to keep myself informed about new developments regarding age-friendly homes and home modification.
ae: It is up to me whether or not I attend cultural events in my area or visit beautiful sections of my neighborhood.
af: I could not possibly trade the neighborhood I live in for another.
ag: It is up to me who helps me in or around my apartment/house.
ah: I am able to set up my apartment/house in accordance with my own personal tastes and ideas.

b.External Control: Powerful Other
ba: I rely to a great extent upon the advice of others when it comes to helpful improvements to my apartment/house/
bb: Whether or not I will be able to stay in my apartment/house will probably depend on other persons.
bc: In order to do anything interesting or nice outside of my apartment/house, I must rely on others.
bd: I feel myself to be dependent upon others in order to use the support services and community facilities in my area.
be: When other persons offer to help me (e.g., with housekeeping) in or around the apartment/house, I cannot say no. bf: Others have told me how to arrange furnishing in my apartment/house.
bg: I listen to the advice of others when they tell me not to change anything in my apartment/house.
Bh: other people are to blame if my apartment/house is not a place where I can enjoy life.

c. External Control: Chance:
ca: Having a nice place is all luck. You cannot influence it; you just have to accept it.
cb: It is purely a matter of luck whether or not my neighbors help in an emergency or not.
cc: Whether or not I can stay in my apartment/house depends on fortunate circumstance.
cd: You just have to live with the way your apartment/house is; you cannot do anything about it.
ce: Chance has pretty much determined where and how I live.
cf: It is a matter of luck whether or not I will be able to pursue my current manner of living in this apartment/house in the future.
cg: The way my apartment/house has been set up is something that has more or less occurred on its own over the years.
Ch: Whether or not there are support services or community facilities in my neighborhood is a matter of luck.

J.Housing Satisfaction
Self report on question:
Are you happy with the condition of your home?
Rated as
1 (definitely not satisfied) to 5 (yes, definitely satisfied)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLu-c-sq-n-11-a r = +.36 p < .001 Sweden O-SLu-c-sq-n-11-a r = +.50 p < .001 Germany O-SLu-c-sq-n-11-a r = +.47 p < .001 UK O-SLu-c-sq-n-11-a r = +.64 p < .001 Hungary O-SLu-c-sq-n-11-a r = +.29 p < .001 Latvia